Section 19

On Temür Sultan's two campaigns against the province of Chalish and Turfan

When Temür Sultan was at the height of his power he set his sights on Chalish and Turfan, and led an army against ʿAbd al-Rahim Khan. Mirza Haydar Churas was the Sultan’s ataliq. He deployed his many troops and marched to Aqsu. Mirza Hashim Bayrin and Mirza Hashim Churas gathered the men of Aqsu and Uch and joined the Sultan. They then reached the township of Küsän. The soldiers of Küsän also joined him, and having thus accumulated a great army they headed for Chalish. The custom of the kings of old was that when they sent troops to the east or to the south, the amirs of the left wing would serve as the advance guard of the army. The leadership of the left wing was the preserve of the Barlas, Dughlat and Arlat. From among these three amirs they would appoint whomever they saw as fit for the leadership. When the army was moving to the west or to the south, the command of the army was assigned to the amirs of the right wing. The right wing belonged to the amirs of the Churas and the Dukhtuy clans, and the chief of the Kerait. Whoever was bold and strong from among these amirs, the right-wing was entrusted to him. In short, there was constant conflict in that army between the Arlat amirs and the Yarqi clan for the leadership of the left wing. Mirza Muhammad Dust Arlat and his brothers Mirza Mansur and Mirza Kepek explained the situation to the Sultan, and the Sultan assigned the left wing to the amirs of the Arlat. The kinsmen (jamīʿat) of Mirza Muhammad Dust Arlat consisted of around forty people, and they pitched camp ahead of everyone else. Stage by stage they reached Korla. Mirza Shah Murad Qargha and Mirza Riza Hilali, who were from the Yarqi clan, and held a deep-seated hostility towards the Arlat amirs, had reached the Qili Pass. From among the amirs of ʿAbd al-Rahim Khan, Mirza Salim and Mirza Abu al-Hadi Makrit and a few others had taken leave of the Khan and had also arrived at the Qili Pass. Mirza Muhammad Dust, with his followers and kinsmen, confronted the Khan’s amirs, i.e. Mirza ʿAbd al-Hadi and Mirza Salim, and a fierce battle ensued. Mirza Muhammad Dust’s following was fewer than his enemy. Mirza Shah Murad had come close, but then withdrew, and Mirza Muhammad Dust Arlat was defeated. His two brothers, Mirza Mansur and Mirza Kepek, were both killed. [The amirs of ʿAbd al-Rahim Khan] left, thinking that Mirza Muhammad Dust was dead, and took the news of Temür Sultan to the Khan. Later, when Temür Sultan discovered the slain amirs, Mirza Muhammad Dust was still [lying there] unconscious. He came to and asked for water. The Sultan and the amirs were glad and saw to his treatment, lifting him from the dust of despondency to a pillow of rest. Mirza Muhammad Dust Beg recovered after a few months, although one of his hands was impaired.

In short, Temür Sultan and certain illustrious amirs who accompanied him, such as Mirza Haydar Churas, Mirza Hashim Bayrin, Mirza Ali Mardan Ordabegi, his brother Mirza Shah Mansur, Mirza Hashim Churas and his brothers Mirza Mazid and Mirza Qurban, Mirza Malik Qasim and Mirza Mas’ud, who were the sons of Mirza Hashim Beg Bayrin Shah Ghazanfar Shah, and other illustrious warriors and brave princes, crossed the Qili Pass and harried the frontiers of Chalish. ʿAbd al-Rahim Khan went from Chalish to Turfan. Temür Sultan took the outer defences of the Chalish citadel, but then returned to the seat of his sultanate. The next year, Temür Sultan targeted Chalish again. Hi assembled a large army and departed for Chalish, arriving in the town of Küsän. The men of Küsän greeted him and joined the Sultan. Stage by stage they advanced to the vicinity of Chalish. Temür Sultan sent roughly four hundred men as the vanguard, including Mirza Malik Qasim and his brother Mirza Masʿudi, Mirza Mazid, Mirza Turdi, Mirza Qurban, Mirza Muhammad Dust, and Mirza Sharif. These amirs plucked up their courage and set out. They passed Korla and reached the town of Qaʿalgha. Among the amirs of ʿAbd al-Rahim Khan, Shah Ghaznafar Shah, Mirza Qara Bahadur, Mirza Quli Beg, Mirza Saqi Bahadur and a group of others had set an ambush. When the amirs of Temür Sultan arrived, ʿAbd al-Rahim Khan’s amirs attacked, and the Sultan’s amirs were defeated. They submitted, saying, “[…] we will get down.” Mirza Masʿudi Bayrin stepped forward bravely, dismounted from his horse, and stood standing there. Mirza Malik Qasim Beg, Mirza Turdi Churas, Mirza Qurban Beg, Mirza Mazid Beg and other amirs ran away, not aware that Mirza Masʿudi was left behind. After fleeing the field of battle they realised that Mirza Masʿudi had remained among the enemies. A group of about forty brave men, including Mirza Mazid, Mirza Qurban, Mirza Malik Qasim and Mirza Nasir, went back for Mirza Masʿudi, and they saw that someone had grabbed Mirza Masʿudi by the edge of his helmet, and someone else was getting ready to cut his head from his body with a shining blade, just as soon as they removed the helmet. Mirza Mazid reached them first of all, and the rest of the amirs caught up up one by one. ʿAbd al-Rahim Khan’s amirs left Mirza Masʿudi and headed towards Chalish. Before the amirs left, ʿAbd al-Rahim Khan had departed for Turfan. Mirza Qara Bahadur and Mirza Habib had lost faith in the Khan and hastened to join Temür Sultan. [Temür Sultan] sent troops after the khan with strict instructions that if Shah Ghazanfar be captured, they should bring him alive. The reason for these instructions of Temür Sultan was that when he left, Shujaʿ al-Din Ahmad Khan had told his son that if Shah Ghazanfar could be caught alive, he should definitely bring him before him. The amirs caught up with them and reached ʿAbd al-Rahim Khan, seized Shah Ghazanfar and went back. Mirza Abu’l-Hadi Makrit was part of that group, and he was agitating to put Shah Ghazanfar to death. The amirs who were in charge of the army, i.e. Mirza Malik Qasim, Mirza Mazid, Mirza Qurban, and Mirza Qulu Bakavul agreed that they would take Shah Ghazanfar alive to the presence of Temür Sultan, but Mirza Abu’l-Hadi surreptitiously had Shah Ghazandar killed. The amirs were outraged. In response to the amirs, Mirza Abu’l-Hadi said that Shah Ghazanfar had killed his father. Shah Ghazanfar had indeed killed Mirza Abu’l-Hadi’s father, who was Mirza ʿAbd al-Sattar. The amirs were dismayed at what had happened.

Mirza Haydar Churas, Mirza Hashim Bayrin, and a group of the amirs laid siege to Chalish. Muhammad Vali Beg, who was from the Churas clan, strengthened the fort and sought to repel them. (Muhammad Vali Beg was the brother of Ali Haydar Beg Churas.) Haydar Beg sent someone into the fort to pass on his request for a meeting with his brother. Mirza Muhammad Vali said that Mirza Haydar should come to the foot of the wall, and he would go to the top of the ramparts and they would meet thus. Haydar Beg went with his followers and kinsmen to the foot of the ramparts, and Muhammad Vali Beg too did as he promised and went to the top of the fortifications. After exchanging greetings, Haydar Beg said to his brother ‘Oh dear brother, this kingdom now belongs to us. You have suffered such hardship in exile, now is the time for you to return to your homeland, and we will give you the government of any territory that you fancy.” In reply, Muhammad Vali Beg said “Oh brother, have you no shame, you wish to call me amir? Will you give the daughter of Mirza Sharif Hasan Barlas to Hashim Khoja Barsak and again seek the position of chief amir? (amīr al-umarā)? It is better for me to be a poor man here in a foreign land than to go there and obtain rank.” He descended from the top of the fortifications. Haydar Beg went back, disgraced and upset, and joined Temür Sultan. The Sultan returned to his own seat, met with his esteemed father, Shujaʿ al-Din Ahmad Khan, and went back to the district of Kashgar.